share

Formula 1 points // basic analysis. Real comparison from 1950 to today. Transparent and fair.

The formula 1 analysis section provides various different statistics takes on the points data. This view shows the all time total grand prix entries for each F1 driver and constructor.

   Nr   Driver   Total GPs
   
1Rubens Barrichello324
2Michael Schumacher308
3Jenson Button307
4Fernando Alonso291
5Felipe Massa268
6Riccardo Patrese257
7Jarno Trulli255
8Kimi Räikkönen252
9David Coulthard246
10Giancarlo Fisichella229
11Mark Webber215
12Andrea de Cesaris211
13Gerhard Berger210
14Michele Alboreto209
15Lewis Hamilton207
16Nico Rosberg206
16Nelson Piquet206
18Jean Alesi202
18Alain Prost202
20Sebastian Vettel198
21Nigel Mansell191
22Nick Heidfeld183
23Ralf Schumacher180
24Jacques Laffite179
25Graham Hill178
26Niki Lauda173
27Mika Hakkinen165
28Jacques Villeneuve164
29Johnny Herbert162
29Martin Brundle162
29Ayrton Senna162
29Thierry Boutsen162
33Derek Warwick159
34Olivier Panis158
35Heinz-Harald Frentzen157
36John Watson153
37Rene Arnoux151
38Emerson Fittipaldi148
39Eddie Irvine147
40Carlos Reutemann146
41Jean Pierre Jarier138
42Eddie Cheever137
43Nico Hulkenberg136
44Sergio Perez134
45Clay Regazzoni133
46Mario Andretti129
47Daniel Ricciardo128
47Adrian Sutil128
49Jack Brabham126
50Keke Rosberg124
51Romain Grosjean123
51Ronnie Peterson123
53Damon Hill122
54Pierluigi Martini119
54Patrick Tambay119
56Jacky Ickx118
57Alan Jones116
58Jody Scheckter113
59Heikki Kovalainen112
59Philippe Alliot112
59Denny Hulme112
59John Surtees112
63Mika Salo110
64Elio de Angelis109
64Jochen Mass109
66Jo Bonnier108
67Jos Verstappen107
68Pedro de la Rosa106
69Bruce McLaren102
70Chris Amon100
71Jackie Stewart99
71Jo Siffert99
73Pedro Diniz98
73Ivan Capelli98
75Ukyo Katayama97
76Pastor Maldonado96
76Valtteri Bottas96
78Patrick Depailler95
79Timo Glock94
79Juan Pablo Montoya94
81Stefan Johansson93
81Piercarlo Ghinzani93
83James Hunt92
84Takuma Sato90
85Jean Pierre Beltoise87
86Marc Surer86
86Dan Gurney86
88Jonathan Palmer85
89Maurice Trintignant84
90Bruno Giacomelli81
91Vitantonio Liuzzi80
91Stefano Modena80
93Mauricio Gugelmin79
94Arturo Merzario78
94Hans Joachim Stuck78
96Satoru Nakajima77
96Alessandro Nannini77
98Kamui Kobayashi76
98Robert Kubica76
98Vittorio Brambilla76
101Marcus Ericsson75
102Daniil Kvyat74
103Carlos Pace73
104Aguri Suzuki72
104Didier Pironi72
104Jim Clark72
107Bertrand Gachot71
108Alexander Wurz69
108Gianni Morbidelli69
108Alex Caffi69
111Gilles Villeneuve68
112Jyrki Jarvilehto67
112Stirling Moss67
114Gabriele Tarquini66
114Teo Fabi66
116Nicola Larini65
117Mark Blundell63
117Erik Comas63
119Jochen Rindt62
120Roberto Moreno61
121Rolf Stommelen60
121Kevin Magnussen60
123Paul di Resta59
123Esteban Gutierrez59
123Max Verstappen59
123Carlos Sainz59
127Jean-Eric Vergne58
127Vitaly Petrov58
127Luca Badoer58
127Olivier Grouillard58
127Henri Pescarolo58
127Harry Schell58
133Derek Daly56
134Sebastien Buemi55
135Philippe Streiff54
135Pedro Rodriguez54
135Richie Ginther54
138Hector Rebaque53
138Jean Behra53
140Manfred Winkelhock52
140Jean Pierre Jabouille52
142Juan Manuel Fangio51
143Christian Klien50
143Jackie Oliver50
143Mike Hailwood50
143Innes Ireland50
147Phil Hill48
148Eric Bernard47
148Roy Salvadori47
150Bruno Senna46
150Narain Karthikeyan46
150Jaime Alguersuari46
150Christijan Albers46
150Francois Cevert46
155Mike Hawthorn45
156Alessandro Zanardi43
156Christian Fittipaldi43
158Tom Pryce42
158Lorenzo Bandini42
160Karl Wendlinger41
160Masten Gregory41
162Emanuele Pirro40
162Felipe Nasr40
164Charles Pic39
164Jan Lammers39
164Howden Ganley39
167Mauro Baldi38
167Brett Lunger38
167Tony Brooks38
167Louis Rosier38
167Pascal Wehrlein38
172Tiago Monteiro37
172Ricardo Zonta37
172Christian Danner37
172Wilson Fittipaldi37
172Jolyon Palmer37
177Kazuki Nakajima36
177Marc Gene36
177Tim Schenken36
177Mike Spence36
181Andrea de Adamich35
181Giuseppe Farina35
181Max Chilton35
184Jules Bianchi34
185Shinji Nakano33
185Yannick Dalmas33
185Brian Henton33
185Rupert Keegan33
185Peter Collins33
190Toranosuke Takagi32
190Pedro Lamy32
190Luigi Villoresi32
190Alberto Ascari32
194Eliseo Salazar31
194Gunnar Nilsson31
194Peter Revson31
197Peter Gethin30
198Ricardo Rosset29
198David Brabham29
198Eric van de Poele29
198Mike Beuttler29
198Piers Courage29
198Trevor Taylor29
198Carel Godin de Beaufort29
205Nelsinho Piquet28
205Scott Speed28
205Cristiano da Matta28
205Enrique Bernoldi28
205Chico Serra28
205Raul Boesel28
205Robert Manzon28
205Esteban Ocon28
213Sebastien Bourdais27
213Andrea Montermini27
213Huub Rothengatter27
213Wolfgang von Trips27
217Luis Perez-Sala26
217Roberto Guerrero26
217Tony Maggs26
217Jose Froilan Gonzalez26
217Luigi Musso26
222Jan Magnussen25
222Paul Belmondo25
222Bob Anderson25
225Anthony Davidson24
225Tarso Marques24
225Harald Ertl24
225Johnny Claes24
229Johnny Cecotto23
229Reine Wisell23
229Toulo de Graffenried23
232Sakon Yamamoto21
232Gaston Mazzacane21
232Stefan Bellof21
232Giancarlo Baghetti21
236Jerome D'Ambrosio20
236Antonio Pizzonia20
236Zsolt Baumgartner20
236Fabrizio Barbazza20
236Adrian Campos20
236Corrado Fabi20
236Stoffel Vandoorne20
243Lucas di Grassi19
243Francois Hesnault19
243Ian Scheckter19
243Lucien Bianchi19
243Ian Burgess19
243Prince Bira19
243Giedo van der Garde19
243Lance Stroll19
243Kimi Räikkönen19
252Gianmaria Bruni18
252Taki Inoue18
252Alex Ribeiro18
252Silvio Moser18
252Hans Herrmann18
252Piero Taruffi18
252Will Stevens18
259Allan McNish17
259Bernd Schneider17
259Nanni Galli17
259Cliff Allison17
259Roberto Mieres17
264Justin Wilson16
264Estaban Tuero16
264Julian Bailey16
264Richard Attwood16
264Horace Gould16
264Louis Chiron16
264Felice Bonetto16
271Alex Yoong15
271Luciano Burti15
271Paolo Barilla15
271Martin Donnelly15
271Oscar Larrauri15
271Johnny Dumfries15
271Danny Sullivan15
271Hans Binder15
271Guy Edwards15
271Mark Donohue15
271Francois Migault15
271John Miles15
271Olivier Gendebien15
271Lance Macklin15
271Ken Wharton15
286Giorgio Pantano14
286Ralph Firman14
286Larry Perkins14
286Lella Lombardi14
286Derek Bell14
286Andre Pilette14
286Giorgio Scarlatti14
286Ron Flockhart14
286Paco Godia14
286Stuart Lewis-Evans14
286Eugenio Castellotti14
297Michael Andretti13
297Pedro Chaves13
297Claudio Langes13
297Beppe Gabbiani13
297Dave Charlton13
297Brian Redman13
297Rikky von Opel13
297Vic Elford13
297George Eaton13
297Guy Ligier13
297Yves Giraud Cabantous13
297Roberto Merhi13
309Pascal Fabre12
309Slim Borgudd12
309Emilio de Villota12
309Siegfried Stohr12
309Vern Schuppan12
309George Follmer12
309Johnny Servoz-Gavin12
309Willy Mairesse12
309Rodger Ward12
309Wolfgang Seidel12
309Jack Fairman12
309Andre Simon12
309Philippe Etancelin12
309Rio Haryanto12
323Karun Chandhok11
323Robert Doornbos11
323Patrick Friesacher11
323Jean-Christophe Boullion11
323Geoff Lees11
323Patrick Neve11
323David Purley11
323Bob Evans11
323Dave Walker11
323Pete Lovely11
323Peter Arundell11
323Ronnie Bucknum11
323Jim Hall11
323Jim Rathmann11
323Tony Bettenhausen11
323Paul Frere11
323Karl Kling11
323Onofre Marimon11
323Peter Whitehead11
342Giovanni Lavaggi10
342Olivier Beretta10
342Andrea Chiesa10
342Gregor Foitek10
342Ricardo Zunino10
342Tony Brise10
342John Love10
342Ludovico Scarfiotti10
342Chris Irwin10
342Jackie Lewis10
342Carlos Menditeguy10
353Jean-Marc Gounon9
353Allen Berg9
353Kenny Acheson9
353Ian Ashley9
353Gijs Van Lennep9
353Helmut Marko9
353Alex Soler-Roig9
353Frank Gardner9
353Bob Bondurant9
353Henry Taylor9
353Bruce Halford9
353Eddie Johnson9
353Gene Hartley9
353Jimmy Bryan9
353Johnnie Parsons9
353Umberto Maglioli9
353Alan Brown9
370Jo Gartner8
370Michel Leclere8
370Moises Solana8
370Johnny Thomson8
370Duane Carter8
370Troy Ruttman8
370Don Freeland8
370Paul Russo8
370Carroll Shelby8
370Sam Hanks8
370Andy Linden8
370Fred Agabashian8
370Cesare Perdisa8
370Sergio Mantovani8
384Franck Montagny7
384Domenico Schiattarella7
384Massimiliano Papis7
384Renzo Zorzi7
384Mike Wilds7
384Mike Parkes7
384Ian Raby7
384Tony Settember7
384Brian Naylor7
384Alan Stacey7
384Gerino Gerini7
384Luigi Piotti7
384Bob Gerard7
384Hermano da Silva Ramos7
384Elie Bayol7
384Kenneth McAlpine7
384Jacques Swaters7
384Rudi Fischer7
384Luigi Fagioli7
403Emanuele Naspetti6
403Perry McCarthy6
403Riccardo Paletti6
403Dave Kennedy6
403Ingo Hoffman6
403Boy Hayje6
403Loris Kessel6
403Leo Kinnunen6
403David Hobbs6
403Skip Barber6
403Bernard Collomb6
403Hap Sharp6
403Johnny Boyd6
403Ivor Bueb6
403Jimmy Daywalt6
403Pat Flaherty6
403Jimmy Reece6
403Alfonso de Portago6
403Chico Landi6
403Jack McGrath6
403Reg Parnell6
403Pierre Levegh6
425Nicolas Kiesa5
425Mike Thackwell5
425Patrick Gaillard5
425Tony Trimmer5
425Roelof Wunderink5
425Sam Tingle5
425John Taylor5
425Nino Vaccarella5
425Ricardo Rodriguez5
425Keith Greene5
425Chuck Daigh5
425Bob Veith5
425Bob Christie5
425Chuck Stevenson5
425Dick Rathmann5
425Al Herman5
425Maria Teresa de Filippis5
425Al Keller5
425Ed Elisian5
425Pat O'Connor5
425Bob Sweikert5
425Clemar Bucci5
425Jacques Pollet5
425Jimmy Davies5
425Walt Faulkner5
425Bill Vukovich5
425Eric Brandon5
425Duncan Hamilton5
425Peter Hirt5
425Franco Rol5
425Consalvo Sanesi5
425Raymond Sommer5
425Alexander Rossi5
458Yuji Ide4
458Norberto Fontana4
458Michael Bartels4
458Tommy Byrne4
458Danny Ongais4
458Michael Bleekemolen4
458Alessandro Pesenti-Rossi4
458Richard Robarts4
458Tom Belso4
458Jackie Pretorius4
458Peter de Klerk4
458Ignazio Giunti4
458Gerhard Mitter4
458Edgar Barth4
458Mario de Araujo Cabral4
458Tim Parnell4
458Gerry Ashmore4
458Tony Marsh4
458Gino Munaron4
458Chris Bristow4
458Eddie Sachs4
458Eddie Russo4
458Giulio Cabianca4
458Jack Turner4
458Chuck Weyant4
458Marshall Teague4
458Duke Dinsmore4
458Art Cross4
458Jerry Hoyt4
458Peter Walker4
458Manny Ayulo4
458Spider Webb4
458Bob Scott4
458Hans Stuck4
458Tony Gaze4
458Gino Bianco4
458David Murray4
458Pierre Gasly4
496Tomas Enge3
496Jean-Denis Deletraz3
496Roland Ratzenberger3
496Hideki Noda3
496Giovanna Amati3
496Gianfranco Brancatelli3
496Alberto Colombo3
496Otto Stuppacher3
496Eddie Keizan3
496Jose Dolhem3
496Helmuth Koinigg3
496Bill Brack3
496Giacomo Russo3
496Paul Hawkins3
496Doug Serrurier3
496Ernie Pieterse3
496Roberto Bussinello3
496Roberto Lippi3
496Jay Chamberlain3
496Tony Shelly3
496Paul Goldsmith3
496Bill Homeier3
496Shorty Templeman3
496A J Foyt3
496Len Sutton3
496David Piper3
496Bill Cheesbourg3
496Ray Crawford3
496Mike Magill3
496Fritz d'Orey3
496Johnnie Tolan3
496Les Leston3
496Cliff Griffith3
496Ottorino Volonterio3
496Cal Niday3
496Tony Rolt3
496Mike Nazaruk3
496Theo Helfrich3
496Fred Wacker3
496Duke Nalon3
496Piero Carini3
496George Connor3
496Bill Schindler3
496George Fonder3
496Henry Banks3
496Johnny McDowell3
496Charles de Tornaco3
496Eitel Cantoni3
496Bill Aston3
496Paul Pietsch3
496Guy Mairesse3
496Eugene Chaboud3
496Toni Branca3
496Cuth Harrison3
496Brendon Hartley3
551Philippe Adams2
551Franck Lagorce2
551Toshio Suzuki2
551Naoki Hattori2
551Gary Brabham2
551Pierre Henri Raphanel2
551Jean Louis Schlesser2
551Franco Forini2
551Giorgio Francia2
551Lamberto Leoni2
551Bobby Rahal2
551Mikko Kozarowitzky2
551Kazuyoshi Hoshino2
551Noritake Takahara2
551Damien Magee2
551Hiroshi Fushida2
551John Nicholson2
551Jim Crawford2
551Gerard Larrousse2
551Eppie Wietzes2
551Roger Williamson2
551Chris Craft2
551Hubert Hahne2
551Basil van Rooyen2
551Al Pease2
551Mike Fisher2
551Chris Lawrence2
551David Prophet2
551Trevor Blokdyk2
551Neville Lederle2
551Brausch Niemann2
551Walt Hansgen2
551John Campbell-Jones2
551Nasif Estefano2
551Roger Penske2
551Michael May2
551Lloyd Ruby2
551Lance Reventlow2
551Don Branson2
551Red Amick2
551Bobby Grim2
551Gene Force2
551Jim McWithey2
551Dempsey Wilson2
551Mike Taylor2
551Jud Larson2
551Colin Davis2
551Alessandro de Tomaso2
551Paul Emery2
551Billy Garrett2
551Keith Andrews2
551Alberto Uria2
551Leslie Marr2
551John Fitch2
551Jorge Daponte2
551Jimmy Jackson2
551Ernie McCoy2
551Georges Berger2
551Hermann Lang2
551Carl Scarborough2
551Bill Holland2
551Arthur Legat2
551Tony Crook2
551Rudolf Krause2
551Ernst Klodwig2
551Willi Heeks2
551Max de Terra2
551George Abecassis2
551Toni Ulmen2
551Joe James2
551Chet Miller2
551Bobby Ball2
551Roger Laurent2
551Franco Comotti2
551Dennis Poore2
551Ken Downing2
551Henri Louveau2
551Lee Wallard2
551Mauri Rose2
551Cecil Green2
551Walt Brown2
551Mack Hellings2
551Brian Shawe Taylor2
551Joe Kelly2
551David Hampshire2
551Geoff Crossley2
551Eugene Martin2
551Jackie Holmes2
551Jacques Villeneuve Senior2
551Antonio Giovinazzi2
641Markus Winkelhock1
641Stephane Sarrazin1
641Marco Apicella1
641Kevin Cogan1
641Miguel Angel Guerra1
641Stephen South1
641Tiff Needell1
641Desire Wilson1
641Carlo Franchi1
641Conny Andersson1
641Bernard de Dryver1
641Andy Sutcliffe1
641Brian McGuire1
641Hans Heyer1
641Teddy Pilette1
641Kunimitsu Takahashi1
641Emilio Zapico1
641Warwick Brown1
641Masahiro Hasemi1
641Guy Tunmer1
641Torsten Palm1
641Dave Morgan1
641Jo Vonlanthen1
641Paddy Driver1
641Bertil Roos1
641Dieter Quester1
641Carlo Facetti1
641Luiz Bueno1
641Graham McRae1
641Sam Posey1
641Francois Mazet1
641Max Jean1
641John Cannon1
641Gus Hutchison1
641Peter Westbury1
641John Cordts1
641Jo Schlesser1
641Robin Widdows1
641Kurt Ahrens1
641Bobby Unser1
641Luki Botha1
641Alan Rees1
641Tom Jones1
641Jonathan Williams1
641Clive Puzey1
641John Rhodes1
641Alan Rollinson1
641Brian Gubby1
641Giorgio Bassi1
641Kurt Kuhnke1
641Ernesto Brambilla1
641Peter Broeker1
641Frank Dochnal1
641Ben Pon1
641Heini Walter1
641Heinz Schiller1
641Gunther Seiffert1
641Ernesto Prinoth1
641Rob Schroeder1
641Timmy Mayer1
641Bruce Johnstone1
641Mike Harris1
641Massimo Natili1
641Renato Pirocchi1
641Gaetano Starrabba1
641Peter Ryan1
641Alberto Rodriguez Larreta1
641Roberto Bonomi1
641Ettore Chimeri1
641Antonio Creus1
641Bud Tingelstad1
641Jim Hurtubise1
641Wayne Weiler1
641Piero Drogo1
641Fred Gamble1
641Alfonso Thiele1
641Vic Wilson1
641Arthur Owen1
641Alain de Changy1
641Jean Lucienbonnet1
641Andre Testut1
641Chuck Arnold1
641Azdrubal Fontes1
641Peter Ashdown1
641Bill Moss1
641Dennis Taylor1
641Harry Blanchard1
641George Constantine1
641Bob Said1
641Ken Kavanagh1
641Bruce Kessler1
641Bernie Ecclestone1
641Luigi Taramazzo1
641George Amick1
641Jerry Unser1
641Art Bisch1
641Christian Goethals1
641Dick Gibson1
641Robert La Caze1
641Andre Guelfi1
641Francois Picard1
641Tom Bridger1
641Don Edmunds1
641Elmer George1
641Mike MacDowel1
641Herbert MacKay-Fraser1
641Oscar Gonzalez1
641Piero Scotti1
641Colin Chapman1
641Desmond Titterington1
641Archie Scott-Brown1
641Andre Milhoux1
641Jesus Iglesias1
641Ted Whiteaway1
641Mike Sparken1
641Jean Lucas1
641Roger Loyer1
641Larry Crockett1
641Frank Armi1
641Len Duncan1
641Don Beauman1
641Leslie Thorne1
641Bill Whitehouse1
641John Riseley-Prichard1
641Oscar Alfredo Galvez1
641John Barber1
641Pablo Birger1
641Adolfo Schwelm Cruz1
641Jimmy Stewart1
641Ian Stewart1
641Rodney Nuckey1
641Oswald Karch1
641Theo Fitzau1
641Kurt Adolff1
641Guenther Bechem1
641Erwin Bauer1
641Ernst Loof1
641Albert Scherrer1
641Jim Rigsby1
641Robert O'Brien1
641Robin Montgomerie-Charrington1
641Eric Thompson1
641Graham Whitehead1
641Fritz Riess1
641Helmut Niedermayr1
641Hans Klenk1
641Adolf Brudes1
641Marcel Balsa1
641Bernhard Nacke1
641Rudolf Schoeller1
641Josef Peters1
641Dries van der Lof1
641Jan Flinterman1
641Alberto Crespo1
641Piero Dusio1
641Carl Forberg1
641Bill Mackey1
641Aldo Gordini1
641Philip Fotheringham-Parker1
641John James1
641Georges Grignard1
641Leslie Johnson1
641Joie Chitwood1
641Myron Fohr1
641Walt Ader1
641Bayliss Levrett1
641Nello Pagani1
641Charles Pozzi1
641Dorino Serafini1
641Clemente Biondetti1
641Andre Lotterer1
641Joe Fry1
641Bill Cantrell1
641Johnny Mantz1
641Danny Kladis1
641Bob Drake1
   Nr   Team   Total GPs
   
1Ferrari2109
2McLaren1726
3Williams1371
4Team Lotus1306
5Brabham976
6Tyrrell866
7Sauber738
8Renault661
9Minardi655
10Ligier595
11Arrows573
12March549
13BRM537
14Cooper522
15Benetton519
16Jordan499
17Red Bull486
18Toro Rosso450
19Maserati397
20Force India380
21Mercedes349
22Toyota277
23Surtees252
24Alfa Romeo237
25BAR233
26Shadow228
27Kurtis Kraft213
28Osella211
29Larrousse206
30Footwork194
31Jaguar170
32Prost165
33Lola157
34Lotus F1154
35Honda152
36Fittipaldi147
37Marussia144
38Ensign142
39ATS141
40BMW Sauber140
41Dallara138
42Toleman120
43HRT112
43Caterham112
45Matra111
46Zakspeed101
46Gordini101
48Stewart97
49AGS94
50Hesketh89
51Talbot-Lago81
52Haas80
53Super Aguri78
54Wolf77
55Virgin76
55Lotus76
57Porsche72
58RAM67
59Vanwall65
60Leyton House64
61Pacific62
62Euro Brun57
62Theodore57
64Iso Marlboro55
65Forti53
65Connaught53
67Coloni50
68Penske46
68HWM46
70Fondmetal42
70MRT42
72Simtek40
73Kuzma38
74MF136
75Onyx35
76Spyker34
76Brawn34
78Eagle33
79Lambo32
80Simca29
81Merzario28
82Spirit24
83Watson22
84Rial20
85BRP19
86Embassy Hill18
86Veritas18
88Epperly17
89Parnelli16
89De Tomaso16
91Lesovsky14
92Andrea Moda13
92Life13
92ERA13
95Tecno11
96Aston Martin10
96Lancia10
98Scirocco9
98Stevens9
100Boro8
100Trojan8
100LDS8
100OSCA8
100Schroeder8
100Deidt8
106Maki7
106Scarab7
106Phillips7
106AFM7
110Bellasi6
110Gilby6
110Emeryson6
110Trevis6
110Alta6
110BMW6
116LEC5
116JBW5
118Martini4
118Amon4
118Token4
118Pawl4
118Bromme4
118Frazer Nash4
118Aston Butterworth4
125Rebaque3
125Kojima3
125Ewing3
125Moore3
125Dunn3
125Nichels3
131Kauhsen2
131Lyncar2
131Behra-Porsche2
131Meskowski2
131Christensen2
131Pankratz2
131Sherman2
131Marchese2
131Adams2
140McGuire1
140Apollon1
140Politoys1
140Connew1
140Shannon1
140Derrington1
140Stebro1
140ENB1
140Ferguson1
140Elder1
140Sutton1
140Fry1
140Tec-Mec1
140Bugatti1
140Klenk1
140Turner1
140EMW1
140Cisitalia1
140Hall1
140Langley1
140Rae1
140Olson1
140Wetteroth1
140Snowberger1
140Milano1

Explanation
In the total grand prix view, drivers and constructors are ranked based on total number of GPs driven in their career.